How is heat transferred in a Peltier / Thermoelectric module?
To understand how heat is transported in a Peltier module, it is necessary to understand the construction of a Peltier module.
A semiconductor couple is the basic building block of a thermoelectric / Peltier module. A couple consists of one p-type and one n-type semiconductor block connected by a metallic strip.
These semiconductor blocks are also called thermoelements. The p and n semiconductor blocks are connected electrically in series and thermally in parallel.
The metal strip serves as a junction between the two semiconductors. When DC current is passed through the couple, heat is absorbed at the cold side junction and heat is released at the hot side junction.
To create a Peltier module, many couples are placed electrically in series and sandwiched between substrates that are generally ceramic.
The cooling capacity scales directly proportional to number of couples in the module.
In addition to connecting the couples electrically in series, sometimes the couples are connected electrically in parallel or series-parallel to reduce the electrical resistance of the module.
How is heat transported in a Peltier Module?
The heat transport in a Peltier module can explained with charge carrier analysis.
In thermoelectric materials, charge carriers are electrons and holes.
Electrons carry a negative charge and holes carry a positive charge. In n-type materials, the charge carriers are electrons and in p-type materials, the charge carriers are holes.
Holes are empty spaces in a crystal lattice that an electron could occupy.
Energy absorbed and liberated can be accounted for by a change in energy level of electrons. Electrons that move to a higher energy level absorb heat and electrons that move to a lower energy level release heat.
The material characteristics and polarity of the DC source relative to the p and n arrangement makes possible energy absorption and release in a controlled manner.
Unmatched Technical Services for Your Product or Application
Technical, engineering and consulting services for your thermoelectric cooling or thermoelectric power generation idea, application or product.
- Overcome your current challenge
- Take the fastest, least risky and most effective route to your goals
- Your idea to prototype and beyond
Join Our Email List
Other Pages You Might Like
- Our Services
- Our Work
- How Thermoelectric Generators Work
- Medical Thermoelectrics
- Thermoelectric Generator Modeling and Simulation - 8 Things to Know
- We won and innovation contest for wireless power transfer
- Pulsed Thermoelectrics
- Transient Thermoelectrics
- We Judged the NASA Tech Briefs Innovation Contest
- Applied Thermoelectric Solutions Wins Editors Choice Award
Like This Post?
Like the post? Dislike the post? Please leave a comment below! And Share on Social Media